Module 8: Applying Chemical Ideas

Analysis of Inorganic Substances

Inquiry question: How are the ions present in the environment identified and measured?



      analyse the need for monitoring the environment

      conduct qualitative investigations – using flame tests, precipitation and complexation reactions as appropriate – to test for the presence in aqueous solution of the following ions:

–      cations: barium (Ba2+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), lead(II) (Pb2+), silver ion (Ag+), copper(II) (Cu2+), iron(II) (Fe2+), iron(III) (Fe3+)

–      anions: chloride (Cl–), bromide (Br–), iodide (I–), hydroxide (OH–), acetate (CH3COO–), carbonate (CO3), sulfate (SO4), phosphate (PO4)


      conduct investigations and/or process data involving:

–      gravimetric analysis

–      precipitation titrations

      conduct investigations and/or process data to determine the concentration of coloured species and/or metal ions in aqueous solution, including but not limited to, the use of:

–      colourimetry

–      ultraviolet‑visible spectrophotometry

–      atomic absorption spectroscopy

Analysis of Organic Substances

Inquiry question: How is information about the reactivity and structure of organic compounds obtained?



      conduct qualitative investigations to test for the presence in organic molecules of the following functional groups:

–      carbon–carbon double bonds

–      hydroxyl groups

–      carboxylic acids

      investigate the processes used t(o analyse the structure of simple organic compounds addressed in the course, including but not limited to:

–      proton and carbon-13 NMR

–      mass spectrometry

–      infrared spectroscopy

Chemical Synthesis and Design

Inquiry question: What are the implications for society of chemical synthesis and design?



      evaluate the factors that need to be considered when designing a chemical synthesis process, including but not limited to:

–      availability of reagents

–      reaction conditions

–      yield and purity

–      industrial uses (eg pharmaceutical, cosmetics, cleaning products, fuels)

–      environmental, social and economic issues