·         Properties of Matter

·         Inquiry question: How do the properties of substances help us to classify and separate them?

·         Students:

·         explore homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures through practical investigations:

·          using separation techniques based on physical properties 

·          calculating percentage composition by weight of component elements and/or compounds 

·         investigate the nomenclature of inorganic substances using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) naming conventions

·         classify the elements based on their properties and position in the periodic table through their:

·          physical properties

·          chemical properties 

·         Atomic structure and atomic mass

·         Inquiry question: Why are atoms of elements different from one another?

·         Students:

·         investigate the basic structure of stable and unstable isotopes by examining:

·          their position in the periodic table

·          the distribution of electrons, protons and neutrons in the atom

·          representation of the symbol, atomic number and mass number (nucleon number) 

·         model the atom’s discrete energy levels, including electronic configuration and spdf notation 

·         calculate the relative atomic mass from isotopic composition 

·         investigate energy levels in atoms and ions through:

·          collecting primary data from a flame test using different ionic solutions of metals 

·          examining spectral evidence for the Bohr model and introducing the Schrödinger model

·         investigate the properties of unstable isotopes using natural and human-made radioisotopes as examples, including but not limited to:

·          types of radiation

·          types of balanced nuclear reactions

·         Periodicity

·         Inquiry question: Are there patterns in the properties of elements?

·         Students:

·         demonstrate, explain and predict the relationships in the observable trends in the physical and chemical properties of elements in periods and groups in the periodic table, including but not limited to:

·          state of matter at room temperature

·          electronic configurations and atomic radii

·          first ionisation energy and electronegativity

·          reactivity with water


·         Inquiry question: What binds atoms together in elements and compounds?

·         Students:

·         investigate the role of electronegativity in determining the ionic or covalent nature of bonds between atoms

·         investigate the differences between ionic and covalent compounds through:

·         using nomenclature, valency and chemical formulae (including Lewis dot diagrams) (ACSCH029)

·         examining the spectrum of bonds between atoms with varying degrees of polarity with respect to their constituent elements’ positions on the periodic table

·         modelling the shapes of molecular substances 

·         investigate elements that possess the physical property of allotropy 

·         investigate the different chemical structures of atoms and elements, including but not limited to:

·         ionic networks

·         covalent networks (including diamond and silicon dioxide)

·         covalent molecular

·         metallic structure

·         explore the similarities and differences between the nature of intermolecular and intramolecular bonds and the strength of the forces associated with each, in order to explain the:

·         physical properties of elements

·         physical properties of compounds