· **Inquiry question:** What are the properties of all waves and wave motion?

· Students:

· conduct a practical investigation involving the creation of mechanical waves in a variety of situations in order to explain:

· the role of the medium in the propagation of mechanical waves

· the transfer of energy involved in the propagation of mechanical waves

· conduct practical investigations to explain and analyse the differences between:

· transverse and longitudinal waves

· mechanical and electromagnetic waves

· construct and/or interpret graphs of displacement as a function of time and as a function of position of transverse and longitudinal waves, and relate the features of those graphs to the following wave characteristics:

· velocity

· frequency

· period

· wavelength

· solve problems and/or make predictions by modelling and applying the following relationships to a variety of situations:

· *v*=*fλ*

· *f*=1*T*

·

· Wave behaviour

· **Inquiry question:** How do waves behave?

· Students:

· explain the behaviour of waves in a variety of situations by investigating the phenomena of:

· reflection

· refraction

· diffraction

· wave superposition

· conduct an investigation to distinguish between progressive and standing waves

· conduct an investigation to explore resonance in mechanical systems and the relationships between:

· driving frequency

· natural frequency of the oscillating system

· amplitude of motion

· transfer/transformation of energy within the system

Sound waves

· **Inquiry question:** What evidence suggests that sound is a mechanical wave?

· Students:

· conduct a practical investigation to relate the pitch and loudness of a sound to its wave characteristics

· model the behaviour of sound in air as a longitudinal wave

· relate the displacement of air molecules to variations in pressure (ACSPH070)

· investigate quantitatively the relationship between distance and intensity of sound

· conduct investigations to analyse the reflection, diffraction, resonance and superposition of sound waves(ACSPH071)

· investigate and model the behaviour of standing waves on strings and/or in pipes to relate quantitatively the fundamental and harmonic frequencies of the waves that are produced to the physical characteristics (eg length, mass, tension, wave velocity) of the medium (ACSPH072)

· analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the relationships of the wave nature of sound to explain:

· beats *f*beat=|*f*2−*f*1|

· the Doppler effect *f*′=*f*(*v*wave+*v*observer)(*v*wave−*v*source)

· Ray model of light

· **Inquiry question:** What properties can be demonstrated when using the ray model of light?

· Students:

· conduct a practical investigation to analyse the formation of images in mirrors and lenses via reflection and refraction using the ray model of light

· conduct investigations to examine qualitatively and quantitatively the refraction and total internal reflection of light (ACSPH075,

· predict quantitatively, using Snell’s Law, the refraction and total internal reflection of light in a variety of situations

· conduct a practical investigation to demonstrate and explain the phenomenon of the dispersion of light

· conduct an investigation to demonstrate the relationship between inverse square law, the intensity of light and the transfer of energy

· solve problems or make quantitative predictions in a variety of situations by applying the following relationships to:

· *nx*=*cvx* – for the refractive index of medium *x*, *vx* is the speed of light in the medium

· *n*1sin*θ*1=*n*2sin*θ*2 (Snell’s Law)

· sin*θ*c=*n*2*n*1

· *I*1*r*21=*I*2*r*22 – to compare the intensity of light at two points, *r*1 and *r*2

· Thermodynamics

· **Inquiry question:** How are temperature, thermal energy and particle motion related?

· Students:

· explain the relationship between the temperature of an object and the kinetic energy of the particles within it

· explain the concept of thermal equilibrium

· analyse the relationship between the change in temperature of an object, and its specific heat capacity through the equation *Q*=*mc*Δ*T*

· investigate energy transfer by the process of:

· conduction

· convection

· radiation

· conduct an investigation to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the latent heat involved in a change of state

· model and predict quantitatively energy transfer from hot objects by the process of thermal conductivity

· apply the following relationships to solve problems and make quantitative predictions in a variety of situations:

· *Q*=*mc*Δ*T*, where *c* is the specific heat capacity of a substance

· *Qt*=*kA*Δ*Td*, where *k* is the thermal conductivity of a material